Keynote Lectures
Keynote lectures are plenary sessions which are scheduled for taking about 45 minutes + 10 minutes for questions

Keynote Lectures List:
- Kevin Warwick, University of Reading, U.K.
Title: Outthinking and Enhancing Biological Brains

- Fernando Henrique Lopes da Silva, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Title: Analysis and Models of Brain Epileptic Activities

- Sergio Cerutti, Polytechnic University of Milan, Italy
Title: Multivariate, Multiorgan and Multiscale Integration of Information in Biomedical Signal Processing

- Albert Cook, Dean - Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, Canada
Title: ICT and Persons with Disabilities: The Solution or the Problem?

- David Hall, Research Triangle Institute in North Carolina, U.S.A.
Title: The cancer informatics ecosystem: A case study in the accretion of federated systems based on service oriented architectures, semantic integration, and computing grids

- Vipul Kashyap, Partners HealthCare System, Clinical Informatics R&D, U.S.A.
Title: From the Bench to the Bedside: The Role of Semantics in enabling the vision of Translational Medicine

Keynote Lecture 1
Outthinking and Enhancing Biological Brains
Kevin Warwick,
University of Reading,
Brief Bio
Kevin Warwick is Professor of Cybernetics at the University of Reading, England, where he carries out research in artificial intelligence, control, robotics and cyborgs. He is also Director of the University KTP Centre, which links the University with Small to Medium Enterprises and raises £2.5 million each year in research income. As well as publishing 500 research papers, Kevin is perhaps best known for his experiments into implant technology. He has been awarded higher doctorates (DScs) both by Imperial College and the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague. He was presented with The Future of Health Technology Award in MIT, was made an Honorary Member of the Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg and in 2004 received The IEE Achievement Medal.

Experimentation is now being carried out into linking biological and computer brains together in different ways. In this presentation a look will be taken at ongoing research and future possibilities. We will look at research in using cultured neural networks to control technology such as robots – robots with a biological brain. Latest results in the use of AI predictive techniques for Parkinson Disease will also be considered, as will be the employment of implant technology for human enhancement.

Keynote Lecture 2
Analysis and Models of Brain Epileptic Activities
Fernando Henrique Lopes da Silva,
University of Amsterdam,
The Netherlands
Brief Bio
Fernando Henrique Lopes da Silva received his Medical Degree from the University of Lisbon in 1959, got his Ph.D. from the University of Utrecht in 1970, and in 1980 was appointed Full Professor of General Physiology at the Faculty of Science at the University of Amsterdam (since 2002 part of the Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences). From 1993 to 2000 he was Director of the newly created Institute of Neurobiology of the University of Amsterdam, and member of the Scientific Directorate of the Graduate School Neurosciences Amsterdam. In 2000, when he reached the retirement age of 65, he became Emeritus Professor of the same University, and has at present a free-lance contract with the Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences.
Since 1970, he supervised a large number of student trainees from different Universities and Faculties: Medical, Biology, Sciences, (Bio-medical)Engineering.
Supervised 65 Ph.D. students (up to December 2006).
His research interests are centred on the biophysical aspects of electrical activity of the brain and the functional organization of neuronal networks, namely of the cerebral cortex and the limbic system, with a special interest in the generation and functional significance of brain rhythmic activities. He published more than 220 papers in peer-reviewed journals and contributed Chapters to 10 multi-authored books (of 6 he is co-editor ), among which the Handbook “Electroencephalography: Basic principles, clinical applications and related fields”, Niedermeyer, E. and Lopes da Silva, F.H. (Eds), published by Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore; 5 Editions:1982, 1987, 1993, 1998, 2004. In addition he contributed chapters to to the Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (George Adelman, Barry H. Smith. Eds), Elsevier Science, 2003 (3rd edition), to the Encyclopedia of the Human Brain (Ed. V. S. Ramachandran), Academic Press, 2002, and to The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks (Ed. Michael A. Arbib), The MIT Press, 2003 (2nd edition).

Selection of Scientific awards
- 1975 He received the Winkler Medal from the Netherlands Association for Neurology for scientific contributions in the field of neurosciences.
- 1985 Elected member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.
- 1990 "Lord Adrian" Lecturer at the 12th World Congress of Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
- 1992 Honorary President of the VIIth European Congress of Clinical Neurophysiology, Budapest, Hungary.
- 1995 Honorary Life Member of The British Society for Clinical Neurophysiology (Formerly The EEG Society), London, United Kingdom.
- 1997 Doctor Honoris Causa of the University of Lisbon (Portugal).
- 1997 Special "Berger" Lecturer at the 14th International Congress of EEG and Clinical Neurophysiology in Florence, Italy.
- 1999 Recipient of the Herbert H. Jasper Award, selected by the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society for his "lifetime of outstanding contributions to the field of clinical neurophysiology.’’
- 2000 Recipient of the ‘Storm van Leeuwen/Magnus Prize’ of the Dutch Society of Clinical Neurophysiology.
- 2000 Honorary member of the Portuguese Society of Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology.
- 2002 Recipient of the Ragnar Granit Prize for his work on the field of Bioelectromagnetism.
- 2002 Doctor Honoris Causa of the University of Porto (Portugal).
- 2004 Recipient of the first Prize “Universidade de Coimbra” for a (sic) “person of Portuguese nationality who has made a particular relevant and innovative contribution in the fields of culture or science.”

General Honors
- 2000: High Officer of the Order of Santiago da Espada, for outstanding achievements in the field of Science/Art/Literature, awarded by the President of the Republic of Portugal.
- 2001: Knight of the Order of the ‘Nederlandse Leeuw’ awarded by the Queen of the Netherlands in appreciation for his achievements in science.

The essence of epilepsy is the sudden occurrence of a qualitative change in the behaviour of neuronal networks of some specific areas of the brain. In general we may assume that neuronal networks possess multistable dynamics. We may simplify this concept considering the case that a neuronal network may display, at least, two dynamical states: an interictal state characterised by a normal on-going neural activity, as revealed in the Eletcroencephalogram of Magnetoencephalogram (EEG, MEG), that may be apparently random, and another one – the ictal state - that is characterised by the sudden occurrence of synchronous oscillations, most commonly with large amplitude. The latter becomes manifest as a paroxysmal change of behaviour and /of the state of consciousness of a patient, i.e. an epileptic seizure. In the terminology of the mathematics of non-linear systems, we may state that a neuronal network behaves as a bistable system with two attractors, to which the system converges depending on initial conditions and on the system’s parameters.
We propose schematically that the transition between the normal on-going to the seizure activity can take place according to three basic models: Model I – a transition may occur due to random fluctuations of some system’s parameters. These transitions are thus unpredictable.
Models II and III – a transition may result from a gradual change of some unstable parameters, either due to endogenous (model II) or exogenous (model III). In these cases the change of parameter values causes a deformation of the attractor resulting in a transition from the basin of the attractor corresponding to the normal state, to the attractor corresponding to the seizure dynamical state. Some experimental findings obtained in different cases of epilepsy, both in human and in animals, are compatible with each of these 3 models. Some examples of these cases are illustrated.

Keynote Lecture 3
Multivariate, Multiorgan and Multiscale Integration of
Information in Biomedical Signal Processing
Sergio Cerutti,
Polytechnic University of Milan,
Brief Bio
Sergio Cerutti is Professor in Biomedical Signal and Data Processing at the Department of Bioengineering of the Polytechnic University in Milano, Italy. In the period 2000-2006 he has been the Chairman of the same Department. His research interests are mainly in the following topics: biomedical signal processing (ECG, blood pressure signal and respiration, cardiovascular variability signals, EEG and evoked potentials), neurosciences and cardiovascular modelling. In his research activity he has put emphasis on the integration of information at different modalities, at different sources and at different scales in various physiological systems. Since 1983 he has taught a course at a graduate and a doc level on Biomedical Signal Processing and Modelling at Engineering Faculties (Milano and Roma) as well as at Specialisation Schools of Medical Faculties (Milano and Roma). He has been Elected Member of IEEE-EMBS AdCom (Region 8) in the period 1993-1996. He is actually Fellow Member of IEEE and of EAMBES and Associate Editor of IEEE Trans BME. He is a member of the Steering Committee of the IEEE-EMBS Summer School on Biomedical Signal Processing: he was the local organiser of four Summer Schools held in Siena. He has been Visiting Professor at Harvard-MIT Division Health Science and Technology, Boston, USA for an overall period of 1 year. He is the Author of more than 400 international scientific contributions (more than 180 on indexed scientific journals).

Biomedical signals carry important information about the behavior of the living systems under studying. A proper processing of these signals allows in many instances to obtain useful physiological and clinical information. Many advanced algorithms of signal and image processing have recently been introduced in such an advanced area of research and therefore important selective information is obtainable even in presence of strong sources of noise or low signal/noise ratio. Traditional stationary signal analysis together with innovative methods of investigation of dynamical properties of biological systems and signals in second-order or in higher-order approaches (i.e., in time-frequency, time-variant and time-scale analysis, as well as in non linear dynamics analysis) provide a wide variety of even complex processing tools for information enhancement procedures. Another important innovative aspect is also remarked: the integration between signal processing and modeling of the relevant biological systems is capable to directly attribute patho-physiological meaning to the parameters obtained from the processing and viceversa the modeling fitting could certainly be improved by taking into account the results from signal processing procedure. Such an integration process could comprehend parameters and observations detected at different scales, at different organs and with different modalities. This approach is reputed promising for obtaining an olistic view of the patient rather than an atomistic one which considers the whole as a simple sum of the single component parts.

Keynote Lecture 4
ICT and Persons with Disabilities: The Solution or the Problem?
Albert Cook
Dean - Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta
Brief Bio
Dr. Albert Cook is Professor of Speech Pathology and Audiology and currently Dean of the Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine and Chair of the Health Sciences Council at the University of Alberta. Dr. Cook has worked with interdisciplinary teams to develop assistive devices and to assess the effectiveness of technology being used by persons with disabilities. Dr. Cook is also associated with the I CAN Centre the Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital. He was formerly Professor of Biomedical Engineering at California State University, Sacramento where he established the graduate program in biomedical engineering and directed it for 12 years. He also served as Co-Director of the Assistive Device Center in Sacramento, California, helping over 500 persons with disabilities to identify and obtain assistive technologies.
He received his Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering at the University of Colorado, a Masters in Bioengineering and his doctorate from the University of Wyoming He is a member of Tau Beta Pi, Phi Kappa Phi and Gold Key honorary societies.
Dr. Cook co-authored with Janice Polgar, OTR, Cook and Hussey’s Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice 3nd edition, published in October 2007 by Elsevier. He has co-edited three other textbooks with John Webster and others and has written numerous chapters in rehabilitation and biomedical engineering texts and monographs.
Dr. Cook’s research interests include augmentative and alternative communication, biomedical instrumentation and assistive technology design, development and evaluation. His most recent research has focussed on the use of robotics with young children who have severe disabilities to develop and assess cognitive and linguistic skills. He has US and foreign patents and numerous publications and conference presentations in these areas. He has been principal investigator on research and training grants in augmentative communication, assistive technologies and biomedical engineering.
Dr. Cook is Past-President and Fellow of RESNA, a major professional society for assistive technology practitioners in North America. He has also served in national united States positions in the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, the American Society for Engineering Education, the Biomedical Engineering Society, the International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. Dr. Cook is a registered professional engineer (electrical) in California.

In order to lead full and productive lives, persons with disabilities need to have the same access to information and communication systems as the rest of the population. Advances in information and communication technologies (ICT) are occurring quickly, and the capability of technologies to meet the needs of persons with disabilities is growing daily. Future developments in assistive technologies (AT) and the successful application of these technologies to meet the needs of people who have disabilities are dependent on exploitation of these ICT advances. AT also involves the development of specialized interfaces such as the brain computer interface (BCI), adaptive interfaces that accommodate for changes in the user’s physical skills, cognitive interfaces that allow understanding of the human technology interface by individuals with intellectual disabilities and systems that accommodate for user needs based on environmental sensing (e.g., GPS interfaces) and downloading of profiles to meet specific user needs. Universal Design (or design for all) calls for the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design. In the physical world this often means ramps, curb cuts and other adaptations to the built environment to accommodate individuals who have disabilities. In the ICT world the barriers to access are technological, and the goal for ICT universal design is to have an environment with enough embedded intelligence to be easily adaptable to the varying cognitive, physical and sensory skills of a wide range of individual’s in order to meet their productivity, leisure and self care needs. If ICT advances are not adaptable enough to be accessible to persons with disabilities it will further increase the disparity between those individuals and the rest of the population leading to further isolation and economic disadvantage. On the other hand, availability of these technologies in a transparent way will contribute to full inclusion of individuals who have disabilities in the mainstream of society.

Keynote Lecture 5
The cancer informatics ecosystem: A case study in the accretion of federated systems based on service oriented architectures, semantic integration, and computing grids
David Hall,
Research Triangle Institute in North Carolina,
Brief Bio
David Hall is a Senior Software Project Leader at RTI International based in North Carolina, USA. He leads teams of up to 30 developers implementing computer systems that support large biomedical and biotechnological research enterprises in cancer research, drug discovery, genetic epidemiology, and plant biotechnology. His area of interest is the practical application of bioinformatics and medical informatics methods, technologies, and standards in the development of production software. Particular topics of interest include data visualization, semantic integration, systems integration, and high performance computing. Recent clients include the US National Institutes of Health, GlaxoSmithKline, Syngenta, and Duke University. Data systems developed by David’s group manage clinical and research data for nearly one million patients. Applications include data warehouses, metadata registries, workflow systems, high resolution image databases, analytical applications, and web services. David is currently Principal Investigator of the Informatics Support Center for the National Cancer Institute’s Breast and Colon Cancer Family Registries. He holds a Ph.D. in Genetics from the University of Georgia and a B.S. in Computer Science from Wake Forest University.

Information technology is playing an increasingly critical role in health and life sciences research due to the profound expansion in the scope of research projects in the post-genomic age. Robust data management and analysis systems are becoming essential enablers of these studies. Driven by funding agency requirements, funding opportunities, and grass roots organizing, efforts are underway to develop standards and technologies to promote large-scale integration of publicly-funded systems and databases including infrastructure developed for individual studies. Predicted benefits include an enhanced ability to conduct meta-analyses, an increase in the usable lifespan of data, a funding agency-wide reduction in the total cost of IT infrastructure, and an increased opportunity for the development of third party software tools. This presentation will critically examine efforts towards developing publicly-accessible interoperable and distributed production systems in the health and life sciences via ontologies, formal metadata, service oriented architectures, and grid computing models with a focus on several projects under the direction of the author in the area of cancer informatics.

Keynote Lecture 6
From the Bench to the Bedside:
The Role of Semantics in enabling the vision of Translational Medicine
Vipul Kashyap,
Partners HealthCare System, Clinical Informatics R&D,
Brief Bio
Vipul Kashyap, PhD is a Senior Medical Informatician in the Clinical Informatics Research & Development group at Partners HealthCare System and is currently the chief architect of a Knowledge Management Platform that enables browsing, retrieval, aggregation, analysis and management of clinical knowledge across the Partners Healthcare System. Vipul received his PhD from the Department of Computer Science at Rutgers University in New Brunswick in the area of metadata and semantics-based knowledge and information management. He is also interested in characterization of the value proposition of semantic technologies in the enterprise context. Before coming to Partners, Vipul has held positions at MCC, Telcordia (Bellcore) and was a fellow at the National Library of Medicine. Vipul has published 2 books on the topic of Semantics, 40-50 articles in prestigious conferences and journals; and has participated in panels and presented tutorials on the topic of semantic technologies. Vipul sits on the technical advisory board of an early stage company developing semantics-based products, and represents Partners on the W3C advisory committee and the HealthCare Information Technology Standards Panel (HITSP).

Biomedical research and healthcare clinical transactions are generating huge volumes of data and information. At the same time, the results of biomedical research in the form of new molecular diagnostic tests and therapies are being increasingly used in the context of clinical practice. There is a critical need to speed "translation" of genomic research insights into clinical research and practice. In this talk, we will discuss challenges faced by a healthcare enterprise in realizing the vision of Translational Medicine, such as:
- The need to create structured and semantic representations of genotypic and phenotypic data such as clinical observations and molecular diagnostic tests.
- The need for cost-effective and incremental data integration for combining genotypic and phenotypic information at the point of care.
- The need for actionable decision support for suggesting molecular diagnostic tests and therapies in the context of clinical care.
- The need for knowledge update, propagation and consistency to keep abreast of the rapid pace of knowledge discovery being witnessed in the life sciences, a crucial pre-requisite to reduce the cost of knowledge acquisition and maintenance.
Semantics-based approaches to address the above-mentioned challenges, including the applicability of semantic web standard (RDF, OWL, Rules); and issues related to the value proposition of these technologies will be presented.